Motor Neurone Disease (MND)

Motor neurone disease (MND) is the name given to a group of diseases in which the nerve cells – neurones – controlling the muscles that enable us to move, speak, breathe and swallow; undergo degeneration and die.

Neurones are nerve cells. Motor neurones take messages from the brain to the voluntary muscles and to some glands. There are two types of motor neurones. Upper motor neurones (UMN) take the messages from the brain through the spinal cord. Lower motor neurones (LMN) take the message from the spinal cord to the muscles.

MND leads to the degeneration of these motor neurones. It can affect:

  • just the upper motor neurones in the brain that descend to the spinal cord or
  • just the lower motor neurones that exit the spinal cord to activate muscles or,
  • both upper and lower motor neurones.

With no nerves to activate them, muscles gradually weaken and waste. The patterns of weakness vary from person to person.

MND does not affect the sensory neurones โ€“ the nerves that receive messages from things we see, touch, smell, hear and taste.

MND occurs at similar rates in most countries of the world. It is estimated that there are presently more than 2,000 people with MND in Australia. Slightly more men than women are diagnosed with MND, most commonly in the 50 to 60 year age group. However, MND may be diagnosed in adults at any age.

What are the symptoms of MND?

Early symptoms of motor neurone disease are often mild. They may include:

  • stumbling due to weakness of the leg muscles
  • slurring of speech or swallowing difficulties due to weakness of the tongue and throat muscles
  • cramps and muscle twitching (fasciculation).